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Design of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Autorickshaw

[+] Author Affiliations
Ikhlaq Khattak

National University of Sciences and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan

Mirza Jamil Yousaf

Green Technologies, Islamabad, Pakistan

Paper No. FUELCELL2006-97249, pp. 439-447; 9 pages
  • ASME 2006 4th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology
  • ASME 2006 Fourth International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, Parts A and B
  • Irvine, California, USA, June 19–21, 2006
  • Conference Sponsors: Nanotechnology Institute
  • ISBN: 0-7918-4247-9 | eISBN: 0-7918-3780-7
  • Copyright © 2006 by ASME


In Asia there are less private cars, but there is a high proportion of 2-stroke engines in scooters, motorcycles, auto-rickshaws (Tuk-Tuks), all running on petrol-oil mixtures with levels of hydrocarbon emissions (from partially burnt fuel and oil) well in excess of levels permitted in the USA and Europe. Worldwide Rickshaw/scooter/motorcycle type engine production is estimated at 17 million per year. According to National Transport Research Center (NTRC), the total population of registered (all types) motor vehicles in Pakistan in year 2000 was 4.224 million, out of which more than half of the population is (2.206 million) two wheelers or three wheelers (motorcycle/scooter/auto rickshaw). Almost all auto rickshaws have two stroke power packs and also 60% of motorcycle/scooters are of the same category. Pakistan is a very densely populated developing country, with very loose environment protection rules, which are practically unregulated due to large financial implications. This scenario leads to adverse air quality conditions especially in large cities of the country where the main contributory factors are vehicular traffic, that too, two stroke vehicles Industry, diesel-powered vehicles, and the omnipresent three-wheeled, two-stroke rickshaws all contribute to the extremely dirty air. Taxi/car use is increasing, but rickshaws have the advantage of being able to swarm through the congested car traffic in cities. This explains the over .6 million motorcycles/scooters/rickshaws currently in Pakistan, of which approximately 20% are two stroke Auto-rickshaws of 175 cc. Pakistan’s vehicle fleet has a growth rate of 8.0% (1990–99). The purpose of this study is to examine a particular application of fuel cell technology “The Auto Rickshaws”. They are small three-wheeled vehicles that can carry three people. Due to their small size and low price, rickshaws have traditionally been powered by high power density two-stroke internal combustion engines. Two-stroke engines produce a great deal of pollution and are an object of concern in many Asian countries. Severe pollution from two-stroke engines is a significant driver for cleaner technology. Thus, the target of this study is the Asian urban commuter, since a rickshaw is largely used in many Asian cities and contributes directly to air pollution in major crowded cities of Pakistan also. Countries like China, India, Bangladesh, Taiwan and Pakistan [1] are facing dramatic growth rates in two-stroke vehicle population as bicycle rickshaws are being replaced, so, low-powered but clean rickshaws would be a major step in providing mobility without compromising urban air quality.

Copyright © 2006 by ASME



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