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CBGA Solder Joint Thermal Fatigue Life Estimation by a Simple Method

[+] Author Affiliations
T. E. Wong, C. Y. Lau, H. S. Fenger

Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems, El Segundo, CA

Paper No. IMECE2003-43407, pp. 417-422; 6 pages
doi:10.1115/IMECE2003-43407
From:
  • ASME 2003 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
  • Electronic and Photonic Packaging, Electrical Systems and Photonic Design, and Nanotechnology
  • Washington, DC, USA, November 15–21, 2003
  • Conference Sponsors: Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division
  • ISBN: 0-7918-3714-9 | eISBN: 0-7918-4663-6, 0-7918-4664-4, 0-7918-4665-2
  • Copyright © 2003 by ASME

abstract

A simple analysis method was developed to determine the fatigue life of a ceramic ball grid array (CBGA) solder joint when exposed to thermal environments. The solder joint consists of a 90Pb/10Sn solder ball with eutectic solder on both top and bottom of the ball. Failure of the solder joint occurs at the eutectic solder. A closed-form solution with the equilibrium of displacements of electronic package assembly was first developed to calculate the solder joint strains during the temperature cycling. In the calculation, an iteration technique was used to obtain a convergent solution in the solder strains, and the elastic material properties were used for all the electronic package assembly components except for the solder materials, which used elastic-plastic properties. A fatigue life prediction model, evolved from an empirically derived formula based upon a modified Coffin-Manson fatigue theory, was then established. CBGA test results, obtained from Motorola, combined with the derived solder strains were used to calibrate the proposed life prediction model. In the model calibration process, the 255- and 304-pin CBGA test results, which were cycled between 0°C and 100°C or −40°C and 125°C, were reasonably well correlated to the calculated values of solder strains. In addition, this calibrated model is remarkably simple compared to the model used in an evaluation by finite element analysis. Therefore, this model could be used and is recommended to serve as an effective tool to preliminarily estimate the CBGA solder joint thermal fatigue life.

Copyright © 2003 by ASME

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