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Effects of Compressor Tip Injection on Aircraft Engine Performance and Stability

[+] Author Affiliations
Wolfgang Horn, Klaus-Jürgen Schmidt

MTU Aero Engines GmbH, Muenchen, Germany

Stephan Staudacher

University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany

Paper No. GT2007-27574, pp. 95-104; 10 pages
doi:10.1115/GT2007-27574
From:
  • ASME Turbo Expo 2007: Power for Land, Sea, and Air
  • Volume 1: Turbo Expo 2007
  • Montreal, Canada, May 14–17, 2007
  • Conference Sponsors: International Gas Turbine Institute
  • ISBN: 0-7918-4790-X | eISBN: 0-7918-3796-3
  • Copyright © 2007 by ASME

abstract

This analytical study discusses the system aspects of active stability enhancement using mass flow injection in front of the rotor blade tip of a high pressure compressor. Tip injection is modeled as a recirculating bleed in a performance simulation of a commercial turbofan engine. A map correction procedure accounts for the changes in compressor characteristics caused by injection. The correction factors are derived from stage stacking calculations which include a simple correlation for stability enhancement. The operational characteristic of the actively controlled engine is simulated in steady and transient states. The basic steady-state effect consists of a local change in mass flow and a local increase in gas temperature. This alters the component matching in the engine. The mechanism can be described by the compressor-to-turbine flow ratio and the injection temperature ratio. Both effects reduce the cycle efficiency resulting in increased turbine temperature and fuel consumption at constant thrust. The negative performance impact becomes negligible if compressor recirculation is only employed at transient part power and if valves remain closed at steady-state operation. Detailed calculations show that engine handling requirements and temperature limits will still be met. Tip injection increases the high pressure compressor stability margin substantially during critical maneuvers. The proposed concept in combination with an adequate control logic offers promising benefits at transient operation, leading to an improvement potential for overall engine performance.

Copyright © 2007 by ASME

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