Full Content is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >

Dynamic Axial Crush of Automotive Rail-Sized Composite Tubes: Part 2 — Tubes With Braided Reinforcements (Carbon, Kevlar®, and Glass) and Non-Plug Crush Initiators

[+] Author Affiliations
Alan L. Browne

General Motors R&D Center, Detroit, MI

Kristin L. Zimmerman

General Motors Public Policy Center, Detroit, MI

Paper No. IMECE2002-32949, pp. 69-90; 22 pages
  • ASME 2002 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
  • Transportation: Making Tracks for Tomorrow’s Transportation
  • New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, November 17–22, 2002
  • Conference Sponsors: Transportation
  • ISBN: 0-7918-3656-8 | eISBN: 0-7918-1691-5, 0-7918-1692-3, 0-7918-1693-1
  • Copyright © 2002 by ASME


This paper documents the braided reinforcement portion of a successful fundamental study of the dynamic axial crush of automotive rail-sized composite tubes. Braided reinforcements were comprised principally of carbon fiber but also of Kevlar® and E-glass and combinations of the three. Fourteen different braids were used, six of which were tri-axial and the remainder bi-axial. Tubes were manufactured using Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) with processing and molding techniques that are suitable for the low cost high volume needs of the automotive industry. Braids were obtained as continuous rolls of tubular sock-like material and pulled over metal mandrels one ply at a time. Carbon fiber tow sizes ranged from 6k to 48k. Dow Derakane 470 vinylester resin was used for all tubes. Tube geometry, a 88.9×88.9 mm square cross section with 2.54 mm thick walls, approximated that of the first 500 mm of the lower rail of a typical mid-size vehicle. Note in particular that tube wall thickness was fixed at a single value in this study. A 45° bevel on the outside edge of the lead end of each tube served as the crush initiator. In total 71 dynamic axial crush tests were conducted. In terms of important findings, consistent with the woven fabric portion of this program [1], desirable dynamic axial crush response was demonstrated for RTM’d automotive rail-sized carbon fiber reinforced tubes. For almost all parameter configurations, the tubes exhibited stable and progressive crush with a reasonably flat plateau force level and an acceptable crush initiation force, i.e. one that can be withstood by the backup structure. Additionally, crush debris from such tubes was found to neither contain objectionable sharp brittle splinters nor pose a health risk. Displacement average values of dynamic axial crush force ranged from 11.88 to 26.51 kN and values of SEA (specific energy absorption) ranged between 10.42 and 22.44 kJ/kg. In terms of parameter effects, the fiber type and reinforcement architecture were found to be capable of more than doubling/halving the dynamic axial crush force and SEA.

Copyright © 2002 by ASME



Interactive Graphics


Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature

Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal

Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In