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Fatigue Strength Evaluation for Sn-Zn-Bi Lead-Free Solder Joints

[+] Author Affiliations
Qiang Yu, Doseop Kim, Jaechul Jin, Yasuhiro Takahashi, Masaki Shiratori

Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan

Paper No. IMECE2002-39686, pp. 437-443; 7 pages
  • ASME 2002 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
  • Electronic and Photonic Packaging, Electrical Systems Design and Photonics, and Nanotechnology
  • New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, November 17–22, 2002
  • Conference Sponsors: Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division
  • ISBN: 0-7918-3648-7 | eISBN: 0-7918-1691-5, 0-7918-1692-3, 0-7918-1693-1
  • Copyright © 2002 by ASME


In this paper, the authors have investigated mechanical fatigue strength of Sn-Zn-Bi lead-free solder joints. The use of Sn-Zn-Bi solder is increasing for the advantage of low cost and low melting point. Therefore, it becomes important to ensure the fatigue strength of Sn-Zn-Bi solder joint. However, when the Sn-Zn-Bi solder was used as a solder material, there is serious problem that the fatigue crack is easy to generate at the interface between intermetallic compound layer and the solder matrix, and it makes the fatigue life of solder joint lower. Because the yield strength of Sn-Zn-Bi solder is high, and the difficulty of deformation causes high stress level concentrating at the corner of the interface between solder joint and substrate/package. It seems that the crack become easy to generate at the interface between intermetallic compound layer and solder matrix by this high stress concentration. The authors have found if Sn-Zn-Bi is used with another Pb-free solder material, a kind of composite structure can be built during the reflowing processes. In this study, the mechanical fatigue strength of this kind of Sn-Zn-Bi solder joint was studied. Based upon the results of mechanical shear fatigue test and FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis, it was found that if SnZn-Bi was used as reflow solder with Sn-Ag-Cu ball, the CSP solder joints are as reliable as thc pure Sn-Ag-Cu CSP. This is because Sn-Zn-Bi solder paste and Sn-Ag-Cu solder ball did not melt together completely and formed two-layer structure, and this two-layer structure reduces the stress concentration at the joint corners, and prevents successfully the occurrence of the interface cracks. As a result the fatigue life of Sn-Zn-Bi/Sn-Ag-Cu CSP is equivalent to that of Sn-Ag-Cu joints.

Copyright © 2002 by ASME



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