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Low Temperature Anodic Bonding for MEMS Applications

[+] Author Affiliations
J. Wei, Z. P. Wang

Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore

L. Wang, G. Y. Li

Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Z. Q. Mo

PSB Corporation, Singapore

Paper No. IMECE2002-39272, pp. 61-66; 6 pages
  • ASME 2002 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
  • Electronic and Photonic Packaging, Electrical Systems Design and Photonics, and Nanotechnology
  • New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, November 17–22, 2002
  • Conference Sponsors: Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division
  • ISBN: 0-7918-3648-7 | eISBN: 0-7918-1691-5, 0-7918-1692-3, 0-7918-1693-1
  • Copyright © 2002 by ASME


In this paper, anodic bonding between silicon wafer and glass wafer (Pyrex 7740) has been successfully achieved at low temperature. The bonding strength is measured using a tensile testing machine. The interfaces are examined and analyzed by scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Prior to bonding, the wafers are cleaned in RCA solutions, and the surfaces become hydrophilic. The effects of the bonding parameters, such as bonding temperature, voltage, bonding time and vacuum condition, on bonding quality are investigated using Taguchi method, and the feasibility of bonding silicon and glass wafers at low temperature is explored. The bonding temperature used ranges from 200 °C to 300 °C. The sensitivity of the bonding parameters is analyzed and it is found that the bonding temperature is the dominant factor for the bonding process. Therefore, the effects of bonding temperature are investigated in detail. High temperatures cause high ion mobility and bonding current density, resulting in the short transition period to the equilibrium state. Almost bubble-free interfaces have been obtained. The bonded area increases with increasing the bonding temperature. The unbonded area is less than 1.5% within the whole wafer for bonding temperature between 200 °C to 300 °C. The bonding strength is higher than 10 MPa, and increases with the bonding temperature. Fracture mainly occurs inside the glass wafer other than in the interface when the bonding temperature is higher than 225 °C. SIMS results show that the chemical bonds of Si-O form in the interface. Higher bonding temperature results in more oxygen migration to the interface and more Si-O bonds. The bonding mechanisms consist of hydrogen bonding and Si-O chemical reaction.

Copyright © 2002 by ASME



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