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Requirements for the Manufacturing of Scaffold Biomaterial With Features at Multiple Scales

[+] Author Affiliations
I. M. Sebastine, D. J. Williams

Loughborough University

Paper No. IMECE2005-82515, pp. 217-227; 11 pages
doi:10.1115/IMECE2005-82515
From:
  • ASME 2005 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
  • Manufacturing Engineering and Materials Handling, Parts A and B
  • Orlando, Florida, USA, November 5 – 11, 2005
  • Conference Sponsors: Manufacturing Engineering Division and Materials Handling Division
  • ISBN: 0-7918-4223-1 | eISBN: 0-7918-3769-6
  • Copyright © 2005 by ASME

abstract

Tissue engineering aims to restore the complex function of diseased tissue using cells and scaffold materials. Tissue engineering scaffolds are three-dimensional (3D) structures that assist in the tissue engineering process by providing a site for cells to attach, proliferate, differentiate and secrete an extra-cellular matrix, eventually leading cells to form a neo-tissue of predetermined, three-dimensional shape and size. For a scaffold to function effectively, it must possess the optimum structural parameters conducive to the cellular activities that lead to tissue formation; these include cell penetration and migration into the scaffold, cell attachment onto the scaffold substrate, cell spreading and proliferation and cell orientation. In vivo, cells are organized in functional tissue units that repeat on the order of 100 μm. Fine scaffold features have been shown to provide control over attachment, migration and differentiation of cells. In order to design such 3D featured constructs effectively understanding the biological response of cells across length scales from nanometer to millimeter range is crucial. Scaffold biomaterials may need to be tailored at three different length scales: nanostructure (<1μm), microstructure (<20–100μm), and macrostructure (>100μm) to produce biocompatible and biofunctional scaffolds that closely resemble the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the natural tissue environment and promote cell adhesion, attachment, spreading, orientation, rate of movement, and activation. Identification of suitable fabrication techniques for manufacturing scaffolds with the required features at multiple scales is a significant challenge. This review highlights the effect and importance of the features of scaffolds that can influence the behaviour of cells/tissue at different length scales in vitro to increase our understanding of the requirements for the manufacture of functional 3D tissue constructs.

Copyright © 2005 by ASME

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