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Microlens Fabrication by the Modified LIGA Process and Hot Embossing Process

[+] Author Affiliations
Sung-Keun Lee, Hyun Sup Lee, Seung S. Lee, Tai Hun Kwon

Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Korea

Paper No. IMECE2002-33285, pp. 45-53; 9 pages
  • ASME 2002 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
  • Microelectromechanical Systems
  • New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, November 17–22, 2002
  • Conference Sponsors: Microelectromechanical Systems
  • ISBN: 0-7918-3642-8 | eISBN: 0-7918-1691-5, 0-7918-1692-3, 0-7918-1693-1
  • Copyright © 2002 by ASME


Microlens and microlens arrays is realized using a novel fabrication technology based on the exposure of a resist, usually PMMA, to deep X-rays and subsequent thermal treatment. The fabrication technology is very simple and produces microlenses and microlens arrays with good surface roughness (less than 1 nm). The molecular weight and glass transition temperature of PMMA is reduced when it is irradiated with deep X-rays. The microlenses were produced through the effects of volume change, surface tension, and reflow during thermal treatment of irradiated PMMA. Microlenses were produced with diameters ranging from 30 to 1500 μm. Moreover, fabrication of the microlens through the hot embossing process is studied based upon a microlens mold insert fabricated by the modified LIGA process. A hot embossing machine is designed and manufactured. The hot embossing process follows steps of heating a mold to desired temperature, embossing a mold insert on substrate, cooling the mold to deembossing temperature, and deembossing.

Copyright © 2002 by ASME



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