Full Content is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >

Evaluation of Surface Finish on Build Up Substrate

[+] Author Affiliations
L. Y. Hung, Y. P. Wang, C. S. Hsiao

Siliconware Precision Industries Company, Ltd., Taichung, Taiwan

Paper No. IPACK2003-35153, pp. 839-843; 5 pages
  • ASME 2003 International Electronic Packaging Technical Conference and Exhibition
  • 2003 International Electronic Packaging Technical Conference and Exhibition, Volume 2
  • Maui, Hawaii, USA, July 6–11, 2003
  • Conference Sponsors: Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division
  • ISBN: 0-7918-3690-8 | eISBN: 0-7918-3674-6
  • Copyright © 2003 by ASME


In recent years, the most explosive technologies in electronic systems have demanded ever-higher functionality, ever-faster circuit speeds, and always increasing interconnection density. Electrolytic and electroless nickel/gold (Ni/Au) deposition process are used commonly to provide flat, solderable pad surface finish on area array (BGA or CSP) packages and printed wiring boards (PWB). The electroless nickel/immersion gold (ENIG) process is widely used which do not requires plating lines for electrolytic plating, better meets the fine pitch wiring requirements. However, ENIG deposition process may cause or contribute to catastrophic, brittle, interfacial solder joint fractures. ENIG plating has previously shown lower reliability at solder joints. This is because Phosphorous segregation at the interface Sn-Ni intermetallic and Ni layer caused poor adhesion at that interface, especially high phosphorous content (10∼15%) of the electroless Ni. There have been many studies verified that Ni3 P formation is a major factor, which causes weaker joint strength and flat fracture surface. Owing to sodium hypophosphite (NaH2 PO2 ) was used to provide electron and return Ni ion to deposit on Cu pad for ENIG plating, it is not dodge that phosphorous element exist at the Ni layer. Hence, ph value, temperature and loading factor (plating area/ plating tank volume) in the plating path are controlled to reduce phosphorous content (less than 10%) to avoid Ni3 P formation. Furthermore, ENIG has a potential risk of black pad, because Porous Au plating layer caused the oxidation of Ni layer underneath the Au plating to occur solder joint failure and low shear forces after assembly. In order to overcome foregoing problem, a flip chip ball grid array (FCBGA) test vehicle is used to compare three kinds surface finish electroless Ni/Au, direct gold and solder on Cu pad in this study 63Sn/37Pb solder bump is reflowed onto these substrates. High temperature storage test (HTS) is used to evaluate thickness and structure of IMC to affect solder joint attachment reliability. Ball shear test is used to measurement joint strength at various HTS time. Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron mcroscopy (SEM) are used to observe failure modes after ball shear.

Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Topics: Finishes



Interactive Graphics


Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature

Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal

Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In