Full Content is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >

X-Ray Diagnostics for Scuffing: Application to Phase Transformation in Nickel

[+] Author Affiliations
Jeff Hershberger, Oyelayo O. Ajayi, Cinta Lorenzo-Martin, Jules L. Routbort, George R. Fenske

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL

Paper No. WTC2005-63904, pp. 145-146; 2 pages
  • World Tribology Congress III
  • World Tribology Congress III, Volume 1
  • Washington, D.C., USA, September 12–16, 2005
  • Conference Sponsors: Tribology Division
  • ISBN: 0-7918-4201-0 | eISBN: 0-7918-3767-X
  • Copyright © 2005 by ASME


Through the use of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and other diagnostics, the fundamental physical mechanisms of scuffing are becoming better understood. Peak broadening in the XRD pattern has been analyzed to determine the dislocation structure and crystallite size. Evidence from this technique has led us to conclude that scuffing is an example of adiabatic shear instability, wherein work hardening is exceeded by the thermal softening caused by the work. We are extending this research through scuff testing and XRD of nonferrous materials. For example, members of our team have recently found frictional behavior and surface morphologies consistent with scuffing in single crystals of MgO. Previous work has suggested the use of scuffing as a general method for the formation of metastable phases. Phase identification information available from the XRD data indicated the formation of austenite in scuffed SAE4340 steel, and the present work reports the discovery of a tribologically formed metastable phase in nickel. The formation of this phase was associated with surface roughening and a rapid friction increase of approximately 50%. However, the morphology of the roughened surface indicated abrasion rather than the gross plasticity typical of scuffed surfaces. X-ray diffraction identified the phase as either nickel carbide (Ni3 C) or hexagonal nickel, which are similar in structure, and ruled out the presence of crystalline nickel oxides. Analysis of peak widths revealed that the dislocation density in the areas that experienced a higher friction coefficient was lower than that in low-friction areas. This finding is not consistent with dislocation density changes in scuffed steel.

Copyright © 2005 by ASME



Interactive Graphics


Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature

Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal

Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In