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Advanced Technology for Server Cooling

[+] Author Affiliations
Ralph L. Webb

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

Hasan Nasir

Omega Piezo Technologies, Inc., State College, PA

Paper No. IPACK2005-73262, pp. 365-372; 8 pages
  • ASME 2005 Pacific Rim Technical Conference and Exhibition on Integration and Packaging of MEMS, NEMS, and Electronic Systems collocated with the ASME 2005 Heat Transfer Summer Conference
  • Advances in Electronic Packaging, Parts A, B, and C
  • San Francisco, California, USA, July 17–22, 2005
  • Conference Sponsors: Heat Transfer Division and Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division
  • ISBN: 0-7918-4200-2 | eISBN: 0-7918-3762-9
  • Copyright © 2005 by ASME


This paper reports work on advanced cooling technology for servers. The air cooling load on the rack may be enhanced using highly compact Copper/Brass “flat tube” water-cooled heat exchangers that are integrated into the rack frame. The cooling water is supplied by a water chiller. Analysis shows that it is possible to provide cooling (UA/Afr ) in the range of 670–1000 W/m2 -K, where the m2 is the core frontal area. Also analyzed and compared are advanced technology CPU heat sinks — a thermo-syphon concept and a liquid micro-channel heat sink. The thermo-syphon may be used in a compact thermal-bus concept for heat removal from multiple CPUs. Used with boiling on an enhanced copper boiling surface in a thermo-syphon, heat loads in excess of 75 W/m2 -K are possible. The heat removed at each CPU in the chassis is rejected to water flow in a compact water cooled condenser. Performance results of the thermo-syphon concept are predicted, obstacles associated with increasing performance are discussed, and possible solutions are proposed. Performance predictions were also made for water cooled: (1) Copper micro-channels as an attached external sink and (2) Silicon micro-channels integral to the silicon CPU die. It is shown that micro-channels integrated into the silicon die do not offer significant advantage over copper micro-channels.   This paper was also originally published as part of the Proceedings of the ASME 2005 Heat Transfer Summer Conference.

Copyright © 2005 by ASME
Topics: Cooling



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