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Influence of Pressure in Pipeline Design: Effective Axial Force

[+] Author Affiliations
Olav Fyrileiv, Leif Collberg

Det Norske Veritas, Ho̸vik, Norway

Paper No. OMAE2005-67502, pp. 629-636; 8 pages
  • ASME 2005 24th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering
  • 24th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering: Volume 3
  • Halkidiki, Greece, June 12–17, 2005
  • Conference Sponsors: Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering Division
  • ISBN: 0-7918-4197-9 | eISBN: 0-7918-3759-9
  • Copyright © 2005 by ASME


This paper discusses use of the effective axial force concept in offshore pipeline design in general and in DNV codes in particular. The concept of effective axial force or effective tension has been known and used in the pipeline and riser industry for some decades. However, recently a discussion about this was initiated and doubt on how to treat the internal pressure raised. Hopefully this paper will contribute to explain the use of this concept and remove the doubts in the industry, if it exists at all. The concept of effective axial force allows calculation of the global behaviour without considering the effects of internal and/or external pressure in detail. In particular, global buckling, so-called Euler buckling, can be calculated as in air by applying the concept of effective axial force. The effective axial force is also used in the DNV-RP-F105 “Free spanning pipelines” to adjust the natural frequencies of free spans due to the change in geometrical stiffness caused by the axial force and pressure effects. A recent paper claimed, however, that the effect was the opposite of the one given in the DNV-RP-F105 and may cause confusion about what is the appropriate way of handling the pressure effects. It is generally accepted that global buckling of pipelines is governed by the effective axial force. However, in the DNV Pipeline Standard DNV-OS-F101, also the local buckling criterion is expressed by use of the effective axial force concept which easily could be misunderstood. Local buckling is, of course, governed by the local stresses, the true stresses, in the pipe steel wall. Thus, it seems unreasonable to include the effective axial force and not the true axial force as used in the former DNV Pipeline Standard DNV’96. The reason for this is explained in detail in this paper. This paper gives an introduction to the concept of effective axial force. Further it explains how this concept is applied in modern offshore pipeline design. Finally the background for using the effective axial force in some of the DNV pipeline codes is given.

Copyright © 2005 by ASME



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