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Combustion of Biomass in Fluidized Beds: Problems and Some Solutions Based on Danish Experiences

[+] Author Affiliations
Weigang Lin, Anker D. Jensen, Jan E. Johnsson, Kim Dam-Johansen

Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark

Paper No. FBC2003-124, pp. 945-953; 9 pages
doi:10.1115/FBC2003-124
From:
  • 17th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion
  • 17th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion
  • Jacksonville, Florida, USA, May 18–21, 2003
  • Conference Sponsors: Advanced Energy Systems
  • ISBN: 0-7918-3680-0 | eISBN: 0-7918-3675-4
  • Copyright © 2003 by ASME

abstract

This paper summarizes the major problems in firing and co-firing the annual biomass, such as straw, in both lab-scale and full-scale fluidized bed combustors. Two types of problems were studied: operational problems, such as agglomeration, deposition and corrosion; and emission problems, e.g. emissions of NO and SO2 . Measurements of deposition and corrosion rate on the heat transfer surfaces, as well as gas phase alkali metal concentrations, were performed in full scale CFB boilers (an 80 MWth and a 20 MWth plant), which have been co-firing coal with straw and other biomass. Severe corrosion and deposition were observed in the superheater located in the loop-seal of the 80 MWth boiler. The boiler load variation has impact on the operation parameters. When the fraction of biomass with a high K-content (>1 wt. %) was higher than 60% on a thermal basis, the boiler suffered from severe agglomeration problems. Lab-scale experiments were carried out for the fundamental understanding of phenomena found in full-scale boilers and for testing possible solutions to the problems. The results showed a strong tendency of agglomeration in fluidized beds during combustion of straw, which normally have a high content of potassium and chlorine. The results indicate that the operational problems may be minimized by a combination of additives, improved boiler design, split of combustion air and detection of agglomeration at an early stage.

Copyright © 2003 by ASME

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