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Increase of Steam Moisture in the BWR-Facility KKP 1

[+] Author Affiliations
Volker Noack

EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Philippsburg, Germany

Paper No. ICONE10-22266, pp. 67-70; 4 pages
  • 10th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering
  • 10th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, Volume 1
  • Arlington, Virginia, USA, April 14–18, 2002
  • Conference Sponsors: Nuclear Engineering Division
  • ISBN: 0-7918-3595-2 | eISBN: 0-7918-3589-8
  • Copyright © 2002 by ASME


Main steam moisture in a BWR facility is determined by steam quality at core outlet and efficiency of steam separators and steam dryers. Transport of water with steam is accompanied by transport of radionuclides out of RPV resulting in enhanced radiation level in the main steam system. A remarkable increase of main steam moisture started at KKP 1 in 1997. In the following years increase of steam outlet moisture started at lower and lower core mass flow rates. Dose rate in main steam system increased simultaneously. Core mass flow rate and thus thermal power had to be reduced during stretch out operation to keep the main steam moisture below the specified boundary of 0.2%. This boundary also guarantees, that radiological exposure remains far below approved values. The increase of main steam moisture corresponds with the application of low leakage core loading. Low leakage core loading results in enhanced steam generation in the center and in reduced steam generation in the outer zones of the core. It can be shown, that the uneven steam generation in the core became stronger over the years. Therefore, steam quality at inlet of the outer steam separators was getting lower. This resulted in higher carry over of water in this steam separators and steam dryers, thus explaining the increasing main steam moisture. KKP 1 started in 2000 with spectral shift operation. As one should expect, this resulted in reduced steam moisture. It remains the question of steam moisture in case of stretch out operation. Countermeasures are briefly discussed.

Copyright © 2002 by ASME



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