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Theoretical Underpinning of the Constraint Effect Between Deeply Cracked C(T)- and SEN(B) Specimens

[+] Author Affiliations
Michael Ludwig

Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen, Germany

Paper No. PVP2005-71181, pp. 261-266; 6 pages
  • ASME 2005 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference
  • Volume 6: Materials and Fabrication
  • Denver, Colorado, USA, July 17–21, 2005
  • Conference Sponsors: Pressure Vessels and Piping Division
  • ISBN: 0-7918-4191-X | eISBN: 0-7918-3763-7
  • Copyright © 2005 by ASME


In the standard test method for the determination of the reference temperature T0 in the transition range, ASTM E 1921-03 [1], the remark is given that different specimen types could lead to discrepancies in the calculated T0 values. Especially C(T) and SEN(B) specimens indicate by experimental evidence that a 10 °C to 15 °C difference in T0 has been observed. In the course of the European research project VOCALIST [2] a ferritic RPV steel has been investigated by conducting numerous fracture toughness experiments as well as intensive numerical studies. A local approach model based on the Weibull stress has been developed and calibrated for this material [3]. For the calculation of the constraint effect between SEN(B) and C(T) specimens with a crack to ligament ratio of approx. 0.5 the model has been applied to predict the constraint effects on fracture toughness and the resulting theoretical difference in the reference temperature T0 . For this purpose the according specimens have been calculated by several finite element models and a reference solution in the small scale yielding space allowed for the calculation of the “constraint free” reference transition temperature T0 . By means of theoretical constraint functions derived from the Weibull stress model, the difference for each specimen compared to the reference solution could be calculated. From the results a theoretical difference of ΔT0 = 10°C between SEN(B) (lower value) and C(T) specimens (higher value) caused by the different crack tip constraint has been obtained. This value confirms the experimental observations.

Copyright © 2005 by ASME



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