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Additive Manufacturing of Functionally Graded Objects: A Review

[+] Author Affiliations
Binbin Zhang, Prakhar Jaiswal, Rahul Rai

University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY

Saigopal Nelaturi

Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, CA

Paper No. DETC2016-60320, pp. V01AT02A045; 17 pages
  • ASME 2016 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
  • Volume 1A: 36th Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
  • Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, August 21–24, 2016
  • Conference Sponsors: Design Engineering Division, Computers and Information in Engineering Division
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-5007-7
  • Copyright © 2016 by ASME


Functionally graded materials (FGM) have recently attracted a lot of research attention in the wake of the recent prominence of additive manufacturing (AM) technology. The continuously varying spatial composition profile of two or more materials affords FGM object to simultaneously possess ideal properties of multiple different materials. Additionally, emerging technologies in AM domain enables one to make complex shapes with customized multifunctional material properties in an additive fashion, where laying down successive layers of material creates an object. In this paper, we focus on providing an overview of research at the intersection of AM techniques and FGM objects. We specifically discuss the FGM modeling representation schemes and outline a classification system to classify existing FGM representation methods. We also highlight the key aspects such as the part orientation, slicing, and path planning processes that are essential for fabricating a quality FGM object through the use of multi-material AM techniques.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME



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