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Numerical Simulation of Different Sizes Missing Pellet Surface Effects on Thermal-Mechanical Behaviors in Nuclear Fuel Rods

[+] Author Affiliations
Changbing Tang, Yongjun Jiao, Wenjie Li, Tao Qing, Yifei Miao, Ping Chen

Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, China

Paper No. ICONE24-60116, pp. V001T02A008; 6 pages
doi:10.1115/ICONE24-60116
From:
  • 2016 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering
  • Volume 1: Operations and Maintenance, Aging Management and Plant Upgrades; Nuclear Fuel, Fuel Cycle, Reactor Physics and Transport Theory; Plant Systems, Structures, Components and Materials; I&C, Digital Controls, and Influence of Human Factors
  • Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, June 26–30, 2016
  • Conference Sponsors: Nuclear Engineering Division
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-5001-5
  • Copyright © 2016 by ASME

abstract

Nuclear fuel rods is mainly composed of uranium dioxide pellets and zirconium alloy cladding, there is a gap between pellets and cladding, which is filled with helium. Under the reactor operation conditions, pellets produce a lot of heat by nuclear fission reactions and at the same time also produce lots of radioactive fission products. Cladding serve as the first barrier to accommodate radioactive fission product, needs to maintain its structural integrity under the reactor operation conditions. Cladding stresses can be effectively limited by controlling power increase rates. However, pellet manufacturing defects such as missing pellet surface (MPS), may lead to cladding local stress significantly high to cause cladding failure. Simulating the impact of these defects correctly can help prevent these types of failure. MPS defects are 3D phenomenon, needs 3D modeling method to study the influence of these defects on the cladding .In this paper, stress update algorithm is derived, with the help of ABAQUS (a commercial finite element software), simulated the thermal-mechanical behaviors of the MPS defects fuel rod with a 3D FEM and completed the sensitivity analysis of MPS defects size for the fuel performance. The models included in this simulation, including pellet irradiation swelling (fission gas products induced swelling and fission solid products induced swelling), pellet densification, pellet relocation, pellet thermal expansion, pellet irradiation creep, pellet irradiation hardening, cladding irradiation growth, cladding thermal expansion, cladding thermal creep, cladding irradiation creep, cladding irradiation hardening and gap heat transfer (gas heat conduction, radiation heat transfer and contact heat conduction) etc. Furthermore, considering the effects of irradiation and temperature on the material parameters such as thermal conductivity, specific heat and young’s modulus etc. According to the simulation result, showing that MPS defects have a large impact on the performance of fuel rods, this impact will be more obvious with the size of MPS defects increase. The MPS defects cause larger gap distance between pellet and cladding, higher gap distance causes smaller gap conductance, and then causes elevated temperature at the center of the pellet and in the region of the pellet adjacent to the defect. The cladding temperature is reduced in the area immediately across from the defect, and is elevated in neighboring areas. Meanwhile, MPS defects clearly have a significant effect on stress distribution and maximum stress of the cladding, cause high tensile stresses in the inner surface of the cladding and high compressive stresses on the outer surface of the cladding at the center of the defect. Around the boundaries of the defect, the stresses are reversed, with high compressive stresses on the cladding interior and high tensile stresses on the cladding exterior.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME

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